The state-run miner said September quarter net profit rose to 30.8 billion rupees ($565.1 million) from 25.9 billion a year earlier. Net sales rose 11 percent to 145.7 billion rupees.
Analysts on average had forecast a net profit of 32.2 billion rupees, according to a Reuters poll of brokerages.
Shares in Coal India, valued at $40.7 billion, closed 0.7 percent lower, before the earnings announcement, in a Mumbai market down nearly 1 percent. The stock has gained nearly 16 percent so far this year.
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