He was undergoing treatment and an assessment of his fitness would be made later today, Cricket Australia said.
Sri Lanka lead the five-match series 2-1 after the fourth leg was washed out on Sunday.
The tourists were chasing 223 runs to take the series after thrashing Australia in the second and third games. They needed 209 more runs off 46.4 overs with all their wickets intact when the umpires took the players off the Sydney Cricket Ground.
Australia scored 222 for nine off their 50 overs after winning the toss.